Plastic surgery is a specialty that involves the alteration, reconstructions, or restoration of people’s bodies. The first ever plastic surgery is to repair a broken nose in Ancient Egypt. Ancient Romans also carried out cosmetic surgeries like repairing damaged ears.

With the advent of anaesthesia, knowledge of the human body, and modern medicine, plastic surgery has come a long way. Read on to hear about the most common plastic surgeries performed today.

1. Otoplasty

Otoplasty refers to any procedure that corrects any defects or deformities of the external ear or for reconstructing the outer ear due to trauma or congenital conditions. Surgery can be done under local or general anaesthesia depending on the procedure needed. Types of surgery include ear augmentation for underdeveloped or absent outer ear, pin-back for protuberant ears, and ear reduction for oversized ears.

2. Forehead Lift

A brow or forehead lift smooths away wrinkles and deep furrows in the forehead. It can lift lowered eyebrows. There are a few different ways surgeons carry out this procedure, each involving different length incisions in different areas. Be prepared to also consider eyelid surgery since a forehead lift doesn’t change the appearance of crow’s feet or baggy eyelids.

3. Dermabrasion

Dermabrasion is a procedure when a dermatologist or plastic surgeon planes several layers of the skin in order to approve the appearance of deeper scars or skin imperfections like sun damage, age spots, birthmarks, tattoos, fine wrinkles, and stretch marks. Dermabrasion procedures usually require local anaesthetic and involve some amount of bleeding. It takes up to a month for the skin to fully heal. This is a procedure that is being taken over by newer and less complicated technology with less bleeding, although are more expensive.

4. Mastopexy

Mastopexy, also called breast lift, is done to lift the sagging breast of women may also involve a change to the size, elevation, and contour of the breasts. It involves the removal of excess tissue, overstretched suspensory ligaments, and often, moving the nipple-areola complex to a place higher on the breast. Mastopexy procedures are also applied during a reduction mammoplasty, which is the reduction in oversized breasts.

5. Rhytidectomy

Rhytidectomy, or facelift, is the surgical removal of wrinkles, meant to give the patient a more youthful appearance. Facelifts may involve a combination of surgical techniques but typically involves the removal of excess skin and the re-draping of skin on the person’s neck and face. Procedures are usually done under deep twilight sleep or general anaesthesia.

6. Abdominoplasty

Abdominoplasty, aka tummy tuck, is a cosmetic surgery done to make the stomach and lower abdomen area appear thinner and firmer. Extra fat and skin is removed to tighten the facia and muscle of the abdominal wall; it is commonly carried out on patients who have lost a lot of weight or had excess stretching during pregnancy. A full abdominoplasty can take up to five hours whereas a mini-tuck can be done in one to two hours. Recovery can take up to a month.

7. Rhinoplasty

Nose reshaping surgery is called rhinoplasty, also known as a “nose job.” This is done to correct and reconstruct the shape of the nose by repairing congenital defects, trauma, respiratory impediment, or failed surgery to enhance the shape of the nose. The surgeon may perform either a closed or open rhinoplasty procedure; the difference being the open rhinoplasty involves cutting into the columella of the patient’s nose.

8. Augmentation Mammoplasty (Breast Augmentation)

Also called a “boob job” or breast augmentation, augmentation mammoplasty involves an a procedure to change the size, shape, and texture of a woman’s breasts. It is also done to reconstruct a cancer patient’s breasts after a mastectomy. The most common material used is a saline breast implant but there are also silicone implants filled with viscous silicone gel that may be used.